Updated: 11:46 AM 00:00 00:00 spaceplay / pause qunload | stop ffullscreenshift + ←→slower / faster ↑↓volume mmute ←→seek . seek to previous 12… 6 seek to 10%, 20% … 60% XColor SettingsAaAaAaAaTextBackgroundOpacity SettingsTextOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundSemi-TransparentOpaqueTransparentFont SettingsSize||TypeSerif MonospaceSerifSans Serif MonospaceSans SerifCasualCursiveSmallCapsResetSave SettingsSAN DIEGO (KUSI) – Some community members asked the San Diego Police Department to take a closer look at the use of a tactic called a “carotid restraint.” While critics say the practice isn’t safe, the department says the neck hold can be an effective policing tool, as an intermediate force tactic and a non-lethal use of force.A recent review by the police department found that the carotid restraint was used more than 400 times over a five year period between 2013 and 2017.Lieutenant Jim Jordon from the San Diego Police Department says a choke hold that pushes against the windpipe isn’t legal, but the vascular neck hold which obstructs blood flow, not air flow can be effectively used in cases involving assaultive or combative subjects. The technique applies pressure to the blood vessels on the side of the neck, until the person loses consciousness.The police department’s review last September revealed that the carotid restraint was used 58 percent of the time on subjects who were actively resisting and 28 percent in situations that also involved alcohol or narcotics. The carotid restraint was applied on African America subjects in 25 percent of the incidents. African Americans are 6 and a half percent of the city’s population.Community members have expressed reservations about the safety of the hold and whether the restraint could lead to death. The department said it did not know of any incidents that resulted in death or significant injury.The police department said based on its review, it will continue to use the carotid restraint, although it will make some policy changes to sure the practice is safe. Those revisions include an annual review of the use of force, more frequent police training on the neck hold, taking subjects to whom the restraint was applied to a hospital for a medical evaluation and banning the use of the tactic on high risk individuals such as the elderly, those who are st obviously juveniles and pregnant women.The carotid restraint puts pressure on each side of the suspect’s neck, as shown in the photo below. FacebookTwitter May 20, 2019 Categories: Local San Diego News Sasha Foo Posted: May 20, 2019 San Diego Police leaders defend use of controversial neck restraint Sasha Foo,
Facebook CEO and co-founder Mark Zuckerberg James Martin/CNET Facebook is making changes to a range of ads on the social network in an effort to protect its users who are searching for a job or housing from discrimination. Advertisers that run housing, employment and credit ads will no longer be able to target users based on age, gender or ZIP code, and will also have fewer options when it comes to targeting users, Facebook said Tuesday. The company also said it’s building a tool so users can search for housing ads throughout the US. “Housing, employment and credit ads are crucial to helping people buy new homes, start great careers, and gain access to credit,” said Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg in a blog post. “They should never be used to exclude or harm people.”The changes are part of a settlement that Facebook reached with civil rights groups including the American Civil Liberties Union, which filed lawsuits against the social network alleging that Facebook allowed advertisers to discriminate against users by excluding people from seeing certain housing, employment and credit ads based on gender, age and where they lived. Civil rights groups, labor organizations, workers and consumers filed five discrimination lawsuits against Facebook between 2016 and 2018, according to the settlement posted by the ACLU. The changes also affect ads placed on Facebook-owned Instagram and messaging app Messenger. Facebook has been under mounting pressure to change its advertising tools after ProPublica reported in 2016 that the world’s largest social network allowed advertisers to place housing ads that excluded users by race, which is illegal under federal law. In response, Facebook pulled a tool that allowed advertisers to exclude users from seeing housing, employment and credit ads based on their “ethnic affinity.”But Facebook continued to receive more complaints that its advertising tools were also being used by employers to post job ads that excluded women or older workers. “Discrimination in advertising for jobs, housing and credit has been unlawful since the 1960s and ’70s with the enactment of our civil rights laws,” said Galen Sherwin, senior staff attorney at the ACLU during a conference call. “But the ability to target ads to users based on their data and online behavior has been threatening to give this kind of discrimination a new life in the 21st century.” Sherwin said advertisers will have to certify whether they’re placing a housing, employment or credit ad on Facebook. Targeting options for these advertisers will decrease from tens of thousands to a few hundred, she said. These advertisers, for example, won’t be able to target soccer moms, new dads and wheelchair users or people who are similar to their current customers. And they won’t be able to target users less than 15 miles away from a specific address or the center of a city, according to the ACLU.Civil rights groups will also be testing housing, employment and credit ads on Facebook to make sure the company implements the changes it’s promising. Advocacy groups will also be on the lookout for any advertisers who are trying to skirt Facebook’s new ad rules. A Facebook spokesperson said the company doesn’t break out how many housing, employment or credit ads are placed on the social network every month or year. Originally published March 19, 11:39 a.m. PTUpdate, 2:09 p.m. PT: Includes remarks from ACLU’s conference calls, details about the settlement and comment from a Facebook spokesperson. Now playing: Watch this: 3 Comments Tags Facebook is a moneymaking machine 2:28 Facebook Share your voice Internet Services Tech Industry Mobile Apps
© 2015 Phys.org Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Drilling site in nearly 2000’ of water on Lake Malawi. Drill cores at this location penetrated more than 1250’ below the bottom of the lake. Credit: Jason Agnich, University of Minnesota Duluth. Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Phys.org)—A team of researchers affiliated with several universities in the U.S. has conducted a drilling study of Lake Malawi in South-East Africa and suggest their findings may help explain the large number of cichlid species that call the lake their home. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the team describes their drilling expedition, what the sediment samples showed and why they believe their findings may help explain the unusual number of related fish species. Study shows evolution does not always mean more diversification Citation: Sediment study of African lake may help explain huge number of related fish species (2015, December 8) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-12-sediment-african-lake-huge-fish.html More information: Continuous 1.3-million-year record of East African hydroclimate, and implications for patterns of evolution and biodiversity, Robert P. Lyons, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1512864112AbstractThe transport of moisture in the tropics is a critical process for the global energy budget and on geologic timescales, has markedly influenced continental landscapes, migratory pathways, and biological evolution. Here we present a continuous, first-of-its-kind 1.3-My record of continental hydroclimate and lake-level variability derived from drill core data from Lake Malawi, East Africa (9–15° S). Over the Quaternary, we observe dramatic shifts in effective moisture, resulting in large-scale changes in one of the world’s largest lakes and most diverse freshwater ecosystems. Results show evidence for 24 lake level drops of more than 200 m during the Late Quaternary, including 15 lowstands when water levels were more than 400 m lower than modern. A dramatic shift is observed at the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT), consistent with far-field climate forcing, which separates vastly different hydroclimate regimes before and after ∼800,000 years ago. Before 800 ka, lake levels were lower, indicating a climate drier than today, and water levels changed frequently. Following the MPT high-amplitude lake level variations dominate the record. From 800 to 100 ka, a deep, often overfilled lake occupied the basin, indicating a wetter climate, but these highstands were interrupted by prolonged intervals of extreme drought. Periods of high lake level are observed during times of high eccentricity. The extreme hydroclimate variability exerted a profound influence on the Lake Malawi endemic cichlid fish species flock; the geographically extensive habitat reconfiguration provided novel ecological opportunities, enabling new populations to differentiate rapidly to distinct species. Scientists have debated amongst themselves the possible reasons for such a large number of cichlid species in one lake—over a 1000, which is more than any other lake. Possible ideas have included unknown environmental factors or biological tendencies of the cichlid in general. In this new effort, the researchers suggest it might have been because lake levels changed so dramatically over the years.To learn more, the researchers traveled to the lake and conducted drilling operations, collecting sediment samples that revealed lake level changes over the past 1.3 million years. In looking at the data, the team found that that there were approximately 24 dry periods where the lake level dropped at least 650 feet and multiple periods where excessive moisture caused the lake to overflow into the surrounding area. There was also a big change that occurred approximately 800,000 years ago where the climate shifted from one that was mostly dry, to one that was much wetter. They noted that during some of the low level periods the lake likely broke into several pieces.The researchers suggest that such dramatic fluctuations in lake levels could account for the huge number of cichlid species, a dominant fish that would have had to be able to change quickly to adapt to new conditions—lower lake levels, for example, would have meant the water would have been a lot saltier with dramatically different pH levels, and if the lake broke up for long periods of time it would have led to isolation of some species.If the theory by the team is correct, it still does not explain, as they acknowledge, how it was that so many of the species that developed managed to survive till today. That answer will likely take a genetic study.